Pinfold Junior School day at the Millennium Wood

by Meriel Jones

Getting children out of the classroom to connect with the natural world should be a feature of primary education and is also an excellent way to introduce science.  This is why, towards the end of the summer term on July 5th, children from Pinfold Junior School in Scarisbrick near Southport found themselves in their local Millennium Wood for the day.

Along with building dens, hunting for treasure and making mini scarecrows with their teachers, they went on a bug hunt with Dr James Davies, a postdoctoral associate in the Institute of Integrative Biology.  Extracting creepy crawlies from the undergrowth and then admiring dragonflies and butterflies as they flew past kept the young hunters, and James, very busy.

In addition, Patrick Hamilton, Lois Ellison and Kelly Roper, undergraduate students from the School of Life Sciences Student Outreach Society, were on hand with activities in the local church hall that was the base for lunch. Kelly said ‘We all really enjoyed the day and it has sparked some new ideas for outreach activities we can develop further. Therefore it was a beneficial experience for us as well.’

‘I would say the main thing I took away from the day was how much fun the children had applying what we had told them about adaptations, to the creation of their own creatures which had a whole range of creative/imaginative features.’

This event is the most recent in the Institute of Integrative Biology’s relationship with Pinfold School that began in 2010 and has included a project that won the annual national Rolls-Royce Eden Award for the best implemented environmental project meeting the needs of a school in 2013.

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Science week in Mosspits Lane primary school, 6-7 March 2017

As part of her honours project Mary Roughley visited Mosspits Lane Primary School in Wavertree, Liverpool, during Science week. She has spent an afternoon with each year 6 class and engaged with the pupils on topics such as scales in the universe, the concept and calculation of magnification and the power of using microscopy in biology. As part of her honours project, Mary has planned the session and developed the supporting worksheets and instruction protocols. After a short presentation, the whole class went out onto the playground to collect their own live samples to view under the microscope, the class were then split into three groups to rotate between the three exercises that were organised. The most popular activity was collecting and viewing their samples. The pupils were given magnifying glasses and also had access to the Zeiss stemi labscope to enable them to examine their specimens. They collected insects, worms, leafs, bread crumb, aphids, hairs…They really enjoyed this activity and were fascinated and very excited by what they could see with a microscope: worms digestive tubes, tiny unsuspected hairs on insect legs and “a starry night sky” (salt imaged with transmitted light)!

The pupils also made their own magnifier using water in petri dishes. They learnt how to calculate magnification and used this knowledge to calculate and compare the magnification of a magnifying glass and the magnifier that they made. They realised that their magnifier made with a drop of water was as good as a commercial magnifying glass.

For the third activity, the pupils used the schools computers and an online programme to learn more about scales. The software showed objects of different sizes ranging from galaxies to a proton nucleus. This activity reinforced the idea that microscopes are essentials to biologists, as many things are much too small to be seen with the naked eye. This is what Mary says about her experience: “I received excellent feedback from the pupils. They thoroughly enjoyed the session and some mentioned that they would like to become biologists. They particularly enjoyed using the microscope and collecting their samples and a number of pupils said that the only bad part of the session was packing away! As a proof of the success of the half-day, the teachers had to fight for the children to go out at playtime. They preferred observing their samples under the microscope. I have personally really enjoyed delivering the sessions, I found the experience very rewarding especially when the pupils said they wanted to be biologists! The experience has also made me consider teaching as a career.” This is what the children wrote about the session: “‘I wish the session was longer!!; I liked seeing the intestines in the worm, it was gross but cool!; The bacteria in the pond water was really cool.” It was a very enjoyable experience at all levels: for the children, the teachers, the undergraduate student involved and me, the academic supervisor. Thank you to Mosspits Lane to have worked with us on this project.

Violaine Sée, IIB

“Microbes around us” outreach event with Northwood Primary School, 15.03.17

Written by Jo Moran

Last week Mal Horsburgh and I welcomed Northwood Primary School to the IIB, where they undertook activities to teach them about the microbes that surround us all every day.

In the morning, the students used light microscopes to identify different bacteria that they would come across in their everyday lives. In the afternoon session, the students were taught about viruses, and made their own bacteriophage 3D paper model. The students were extremely enthusiastic, and really enjoyed the chance to use scientific equipment. Over lunch, we encouraged the students to ask questions to the scientists who were demonstrating to them. My favourite questions included “how long does it take to become a scientist?”, “how do you know when you’ve really proved something scientifically?” and “what’s the most embarrassing thing that’s ever happened to you in the lab?”

Although the event was run by Jo Moran, Renze Gao, a Biological sciences honours student, designed and developed all of the activities and resources for the day for his honours project. Renze hugely enjoyed working out how to make what he knew about microbes accessible to 10 year olds, and is considering doing something similar in his future career.

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Postcard from Khon Kaen, Thailand – Eddy Spofford and Charlotte Price (MBiolSci students from the Institute of Integrative Biology)

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is more prevalent in Southeast Asian countries compared to the western world, where cases of CCA are rare. Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection (opisthorchiasis) is the associated cause of this increase of cases in CCA, and rates of high infection with OV correlate with high CCA occurrence. In the Northeastern Isaan region of Thailand, OV-infection is endemic – this region also suffers high levels of CCA. OV may be transmitted by eating raw or undercooked fish in foods such as such as ‘koi pla’. After consumption, the OV parasite resides in the duodenum, the liver and surrounding bile ducts and can live for up to 20 years. Infection is asymptomatic, making CCA difficult to detect until it presents in its terminal stages. For these reasons, OV is classed as a type 1 carcinogen.

As part of our integrated masters final year project and internship, Charlotte and I are observing the sustained immune response towards OV – one of several contributors to the development of CCA. As part of a Newton Fund project funded by the British Council, we have been conducting our research in the Tropical Disease Research Laboratory (TDRL),  part of Khon Kaen University. So far, we have enjoyed integrating ourselves into a completely new culture and working in a lab with more independence than we have had before. So far it has been an exciting and rewarding experience. TDRL provides a lot of opportunities for international students, so whilst we are submerged in Thai culture we have also been fortunate to meet people from all across the world. This is in addition to making discoveries along the way in the lab. Knowing that our research will contribute towards efforts to reducing OV-infection and CCA mortalities is very humbling.

TDRL developed the “Lawa Model” several years ago and introduced this to Lawa villages 6 years ago. This model aims to educate people about the dangers of OV and eating potentially contaminated fish. Health volunteers are responsible for screening of patients to detect OV and administering praziquantel, as well as other non-OV health issues. They are also required to examine stool samples and educate locals as part of the free education programme in local schools, or ‘door to door’ educating. The health volunteers are key in maintaining the health and awareness of the local communities, whether it be through interpretive dance, adaptations of popular Thai songs or handing out leaflets.

The Lawa Model education programme in schools is free. Before the model was introduced, an average of 10% of children were OV-positive. Now, most schools around the Lawa Region can boast 0% infection. The Model encourages education about OV as part of the school curriculum by rewarding them with certificates. This is promising for future generations that are much less likely to suffer from CCA.

The Lawa Model adopts the ‘EcoHealth’ approach which means a transdisciplinary approach, where experts from different scientific disciplines such as conchology, ichthyology, parasitology, biochemistry and veterinary medicine that target each stage of OV’s lifecycle.  A major failing in previous attempts has been lack of sustained awareness and implementation of control programmes. The Lawa Model has attempted to solve this by encouraging and educating stake holders including local officials, monks, village leaders, schools and the previously mentioned health volunteers who are also responsible for providing regular health checkups for the villagers and checking for OV-infection.

On our visit to Lawa Lake, we saw for ourselves the success of the model, where it was very clear that the majority of people now had a clear understanding of how OV is transmitted. Before the model was introduced six years ago, OV-infection in the human populations in this area was 60%, but this has now fallen to less than 10%. OV-infection in fish has fallen from 70% to <1% and snails infected with OV have dropped to less than 0.2%. As a result of this success, the TDR team are now planning to introduce the Lawa Model into different provinces within Thailand and other neighbouring countries. Charlotte and I recently visited Kalasin, a province nearby to Khon Kaen, which is in very early stages of Lawa Model implementation. It was very eye-opening to see how unaware some people still are in Thailand despite the threat of this disease. However, due to the Lawa Model’s previous success it is likely villages in Kalasin will have the same promising results.

The TDR team from KKU often travels to local Lawa Villages to hold talks about the dangers of OV and explain how it is transmitted. Ultrasound screening is also performed to determine levels of liver complication in patients. Blood samples are also taken from the field and used as part of research about the pathology of OV infection, which precedes CCA. As part of my and Charlotte’s research, we have analysed these blood samples through various immunological assays. Our research will contribute to the current hypothesis that people with a more aggressive immune response are more susceptible to the development of CCA.

The recent ‘National agenda against liver fluke and cancer’ has made clear its aim to remove OV from Thailand in the next 10 years and reduce the number of CCA mortalities. The Lawa Model is a perfect example of how constant attention and support to communities can reduce the infection rate of OV. For this to happen on a national scale, the government must become involved on a permanent level to guarantee replication of the Lawa Model’s success.

After 3 months here, Charlotte and I are continuing to enjoy both the science and the fun that comes with Thai culture. We are fortunate to be part of such a worthwhile project and hope our time here will be beneficial to both ourselves, and the fight against OV and CCA.

Top L-R: Dr Kanin Salao and Eddy processing patient blood samples in the lab; Eddy and Charlotte with Prof Steven Edwards and Dr Helen Wright, who lead the University of Liverpool collaboration with TDRL, and Dr Kanin Salao from TDRL prior to them leaving for Khon Kaen in July; Eddy and Charlotte with other TDRL students paying respects to Prof Banchob Sripa (centre) on “Teachers Day”.

Bottom L-R: Community outreach program in Kalasin; Charlotte carrying out neutrophil isolations in the lab; OV parasite under the microscope.

 

Meet the Scientists – ‘Build-A-Body’

Guest post by Chris Clarke

On Saturday 1st October Dr Chris Clarke and Dr Dada Pisconti from the Institute of Integrative Biology took part in Meet the Scientists at the World Museum Liverpool. The aim of their stand was to convey to the visitors how muscle is made and repaired. There were two activities set up:
1.      Two microscopes displaying samples (from their lab) of muscle progenitor cells fixed at the start (day 0) and end (day 3) of a differentiation experiment where individual cells at the start of the experiment fuse into multinucleated muscle fibers, replicating in vivo muscle formation and regeneration. A laptop was also set up showing a time lapse video of the same process.
2.      The Muscle Regeneration game. To show guests the process of muscle regeneration in a more hands-on way, a game was set up here children were asked to repair broken Play-doh ‘muscle fibers’ using Play-doh ‘stem cells’. The aim of the game was to split the stem cell in half, turn one half into a new part of a muscle fiber (ie. A sausage) and fix the broken fiber by ‘fusing’ this new fiber with the broken one. 2-3 sets of broken fibers had to be repaired in this way, with children facing off against siblings/friends/parents to finish in the fastest time possible.

They were also assisted on the day by undergraduate students from the University of Liverpool.

Find out more about future events here.

@livuniIIB PhD students visit Liverpool International College @LICLiverpool

IIB PhD students visit Liverpool International College @LICLiverpool

Liverpool International College

On Friday 4th March Institute of Integrative Biology PhD students Susama Chokesuwattanskul, Amber Leckenby, Jennifer Francis, Rudi Verspoor, Amy Eacock, Stuart McEwen, Sean Goodman and Lucy Mycock visited the Liverpool International College, to meet international students who will be joining the University in September.  They shared advice and information with ~40 students on undergraduate life, the research environment in their department and becoming a postgraduate student through a ‘speed dating’ session. This is the second event of this type, and the plan is to run it again next year.

Outreach by School of Life Sciences Undergraduates

Life Science students at Ness Gardens: On Saturday 14th March a group of undergraduates from the School of Life Sciences Undergraduate Outreach Group took part in the Family Science Discovery Fair at Ness Gardens.  Around 300 visitors attended the event, getting stuck in with Strawberry DNA extractions and making DNA models from sweets with the students. Our undergraduate team were met by many intrigued members of the public from young children to adults.  Genetics student Juhi Gupta who is president of the group said “This was a great opportunity for us as undergraduates to be involved in. We were honoured to represent the undergraduate student community from the School of Life Sciences”.

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About the Undergraduate Outreach Group: The Life Sciences Undergraduate Outreach Group was set up in May 2014 and consists of 30-40 School of Life Sciences Students from across our degree programs. They aim to take their love of science out to the public, whether that’s school children or interested adults, and to inform and inspire them to want to know more about Biology.

The group received a grant from The Friends of the University in Sept 2014 to develop activities of their own, but are also keen to get experience by helping with other people’s outreach activities. If you would like their help at your event please let Kate Hammond or Juhi know.

Over the past year or so they have exhibited at the Big Bang Fair Northwest, the University Pop-up Shop and the St Helen’s Skills Show, and have also helped with activities run by academics from the School of Life Sciences, the Institute of Integrative Biology and the Institute of Global Health.